Most Dalmatians are HUA (High Uric Acid) and will require a low purine diet. This is not to be confused with a low protein. Although people cringe at the thought of monitoring their dog's diet, owners of a HUA Dalmatians often choose chicken protein kibble since it is low in purines, and as an extra precaution they keep the dogs hydrated by adding water to the kibble when feeding. These two steps will greatly reduce the risk of forming and/or retaining stones.
Dalmatians that are LUA (Low Uric Acid) stemming from the Dalmatian backcross project will not require any special diet or water intake than what’s required by any other dog.
Dalmatians as a breed suffer from deafness and urate stones. The urate stone issue has been corrected with Dalmatians that retain the LUA gene, but the hearing remains an ongoing issue with roughly 22%+ unilateral (deaf in one ear), and roughly 8% bilateral (deaf in both ears). A reputable Dalmatian breeder will test any/all puppies at 5-7 weeks of age. The results of any deafness from the test should be disclosed prior to the taking possession of the puppy.
No. Since the original backcross to the pointer in 1973 there has not been any Pointer specific health issues noted in the Descendants. As of the 12 generation, the contribution of Pointer DNA is less than 2 hundredths of one percent – extremely little.
With HUA Dalmatians it is impossible to prevent crystals and stones 100%, but with carefully monitoring purine intake and ensuring that they consume ample water the risk can be reduced. The easiest way to keep your Dalmatian hydrated is by (floating) adding water to the kibble, and making sure water is always available.
LUA Dalmatian breeders test puppies and disclose the results prior to their departure, but should you need to test your dog or puppies you can do so by ordering test kits from University of California Davis School of Veterinary Medicine.
Here is a basic video from AKC. It unfortunately doesn’t focus on specifically how points are earned, but still a great overview.